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Cigarettes and alcohol are in the group of addictive substances. These substances, which cause various problems in different parts of the body, can cause serious life threats when consumed together or separately.

We know that all kinds of alcohol and drugs, especially cigarettes, harm countless organs in the body. Among these are the organs where vital functions are carried out, such as the lungs and liver.

What are the Harms of Smoking and Alcohol?

Smoking and alcohol consumption weakens the immune system and decreases the body's resistance to diseases. Long-term alcohol and cigarette use can cause various problems in different parts of the body.

Smoking mainly affects the lungs, while alcohol adversely affects the liver. For a longer and healthier life, quit these substances from your life. Tobacco and alcohol carry many risks, from cancer to diabetes, tuberculosis to infertility.

The Harms of Smoking

Smoking triggers many diseases; It is effective in developing numerous diseases, especially lung, mouth, and pancreatic cancer. The principal consequences of smoking are:

Effects on Respiratory System

Cigarette smoke contains substances that block the respiratory tract and cause inflammatory reactions. Inhalation of these substances irritates the bronchi and damages the self-cleaning lung system. In regular smokers, complaints such as chronic cough, sputum, and respiratory distress occur. Smoking starting at a young age, negatively affects lung growth and predisposes to COPD.

Effects on the Cardiovascular System

Smoking is one of the most critical factors in decreasing blood flow velocity. It increases the risk of atherosclerosis by causing harmful plaque formation in blood vessels. In addition, it reduces the oxygen level in the blood. It decreases the amount of oxygen received by organs. Smoking causes an increase in the level of harmful cholesterol in the blood, resulting in the narrowing of the arteries. As a result, the risk of heart attack and stroke increases.

Effects on Oral and Dental Health

While the tar substance in the cigarette causes yellowing and staining of the teeth, it also prepares the ground for gingiva problems. Since the blood flow rate decreases due to smoking, the rate of problem formation in the gingiva increases. In addition, bacteria colonize the mouth, and problems such as dental caries and bad breath occur.

Effects on Skin Health

The skin of smokers has a pale, gray, and unhealthy appearance. it affects the skin because nicotine decreases blood circulation around the skin and causes blockage of the channels that feed the skin. As a result, the skin becomes prone to wrinkles. While the formation of acne and blackheads increases, brightness decreases.

Effects on the Brain

Atherosclerosis caused by smoking also negatively affects brain functions. The occlusion of the vessels traveling to the brain increases the risk of cerebral hemorrhage and death. In addition, regular smoking causes impaired memory and loss of logical thinking ability.

Besides these, smoking affects how the body secretes insulin, increasing the risk of diabetes over time. It is among the infertility factors for both men and women. It increases the risk of tumor formation in numerous tissues and organs such as lung, breast, pancreatic, and colon cancer. Therefore, smoking has physical as well as life-threatening risks. In addition, the harmful effects of cigarettes do not only develop with smoking; secondhand exposure is also common; there are numerous toxic substances in cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid smoking environments.

Harms of Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol and cigarettes are substances that can create serious complications in the body. In addition, since these two substances are often consumed together, the risks are even more severe. The main harms of alcohol, which causes similar problems to smoking, can be listed as follows:

  •  Alcohol increases the risk of cirrhosis, primarily by affecting fatty liver cells. The liver filters the substances coming from outside to the body and ensures that the body gets the nutrients it needs. It works harder to render the substances in alcohol harmless, and over time it becomes tired and unable to do its job. This results in fatty liver.
  • Alcohol is a toxic substance, and its harmful substances are unsuitable for vascular health. With the increase in alcohol consumption, the risk of vessel narrowing and stiffness increases. As a result, other organs become insufficiently nourished by the vessels.
  • Alcohol is one of the leading causes of many life-threatening problems, such as heart rhythm disorder and heart failure—ingredients of alcohol cause various stomach diseases and digestive disorders. With long-term alcohol consumption, the risk of stomach diseases such as ulcers, gastritis, and stomach inflammation increases.
  • The risk of tuberculosis in alcohol users is 28 times higher than in normal individuals. Since excessive alcohol use weakens the immune system, it predisposes to tuberculosis and causes lung inflammation. In addition, acute lung inflammation can be observed with the escape of stomach contents into the lungs during vomiting.
  • Alcohol impairs brain functions. While it causes the ability to make decisions, act and think in the short term, It can cause permanent brain damage over a long time. In addition, short-term damage can lead to life-threatening consequences such as traffic accidents, falls, crashes, and injuries.
  • The optic nerve ends from the brain to the eye are affected by alcohol use. Yellowing of the pupils, numbness, and visual disturbances are triggered by alcohol.
  • Long-term use of alcohol causes sensory loss of smell and causes the capillaries around the nose to burst. In this case, nosebleeds occur.
  • Another effect of alcohol is that it causes redness and swelling on the skin. Excessive alcohol consumption causes permanent redness and blemishes, which are physically uncomfortable.
  • Alcohol absorbs water from the body and causes the body to become dehydrated. This results in coughing, hoarseness, and deepening of the voice.
  • Water loss due to alcohol; causes various hygienic problems such as dry mouth, deterioration in the sense of taste, bad breath, gingival diseases, and the development of intraoral infections.
  • The sleep pattern and quality of individuals who use alcohol chronically are quite poor. Insufficient sleep has many adverse effects on the body, both physically and psychologically. Insufficient sleep, in the first place, causes the immune system to weaken and a depression.

Alcohol and smoking make worse health conditions. Kidney and intestinal inflammations, stomach disease, reproductive problems, and many other diseases are caused by consuming these two substances. Especially in the case of alcohol and cigarette consumption in pregnant women, there is a risk of permanent brain damage, complications, and stillbirth in the unborn baby. Ending these two habits, which adversely affect physical health and mood, is extremely important for a healthy life. Regardless of the individual's age and how long they have been using alcohol and cigarettes, these two bad habits can be completely terminated at any time. If you need help at this stage, you can consult specialist doctors and health professionals.

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