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Lung cancer ranks first among cancer-related deaths worldwide.Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in men, and it has also become frequent in women due to the rising rate of smoking.Since lung cancer develops primarily due to smoking, the risk of lung cancer can be reduced and prevented if smoking is ceased.

It is our country's most common type of cancer and is usually centrally located.

Risk Factors for Lung Cancer


Smoking is responsible for approximately 80-85% of lung cancer cases. It is more common in smokers, especially for squamous cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. There is a linear relationship between the number of cigarettes consumed daily, the duration of smoking, and the risk for lung cancer.

Genetic Factors

The incidence of lung cancer is slightly higher in individuals with a family history of lung cancer.

Occupational Exposure to Chemical Substances

Radiation Exposure

Some Prior Lung Diseases

The scar tissue in pulmonary tuberculosis, empyema, interstitial fibrosis, and other lung diseases with tissue destruction may form a basis for lung cancer. These patients are at high risk of adenocarcinoma than different lung cancer types.

Asbestos exposure, the most important known risk factor for mesothelioma (lung membrane cancer), also increases the risk of lung cancer.

Note: Especially people with a family history of cancer are at high risk with the addition of other threats. Smoking status plays a significant role in this kind of patient.

Classification of Lung Cancer by Cell Type

Small cell lung cancer: The incidence of small cell lung cancer among all lung cancers is approximately 15-20%.

Non-small cell lung cancers

Squamous cell cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type in our country and is usually centrally located.

Adeno Cancer

Adenocarcinoma of the Lung is the most common type in some countries. Its frequency has also started to increase in our country. It is generally located peripherally.
The course and treatment approach of small and non-small cell lung cancer is entirely different.

Lung Cancer Symptoms and Diagnosis

What are the symptoms of lung cancer?

Lung cancer symptoms can be examined in 2 groups, local signs and extrapulmonary symptoms:

  • Most of the patients are asymptomatic in the early period.
  • Cough: Although it is the most common symptom, patients do not go to the doctor with this complaint. Blood in the sputum may be a sign of cancer, and a doctor should be consulted.
  • Symptoms include expectoration, shortness of breath, spitting up blood, hoarseness, chest, shoulder, arm, or back pain, and wheezing.

Extrapulmonary manifestations of lung cancer

  • It may be due to the metastases of the tumor to other organs and some hormonal substances released from cancer.
  • The symptoms of metastasis are specific to the organ.
  • Widespread excruciating pain in bone metastases is joint.
  • In brain metastases, unconsciousness, seizures, loss of muscle strength, and visual disturbances may occur.

Diagnosis of Lung cancer

  • We are performing a detailed examination of patients who present to our clinic.
  • Chest X-ray serves as an essential diagnostic tool
  • Presentations such as tumors or infections caused by cancer, pleurisy (fluid accumulation), and atelectasis (lung collapse) may be detected.

Computed tomography of the thorax (Thorax CT) scanning is performed
CT also shows nodules that are not visible on chest X-rays.
After the standard chest X-ray and computed tomography examination, the regional spread of the disease can be estimated, and its localization is revealed. The physician can now decide which biopsy method will be required for a definitive lung cancer diagnosis.

Biopsy; A biopsy is performed to diagnose lung cancer and determine the cell type if cancer is suspected.
Bronchoscopy; it is preferred in lesions that are located centrally.
Trans Thoracic Needle Biopsy; In tumors located at the more extreme points of the lungs, a biopsy can be taken by entering the skin with a needle under ultrasonography or computed tomography guidance. Cells are aspirated.
Tru-cut biopsy: In tumors located at the more extreme points of the lungs, excisional biopsy is performed by entering through the skin under the guidance of computed tomography. These biopsies are much more valuable for genetic studies for smart drug treatments.
Navigational bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasonography ; Due to technological developments in recent years, tumors located at the endpoints of the lung can also be reached with navigational bronchoscopy.
Sputum cytology.